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Valve springs are integral components of an internal combustion engine. They serve important roles:

1. Closing Valves: The primary function of a valve spring is to close the valves in the cylinder head after they've been opened by the camshaft. This is crucial for maintaining the correct timing of the engine's intake and exhaust cycles.

2. Preventing Valve Float: At higher engine speeds, the camshaft rotates so quickly that the inertia of the valve can prevent it from closing fully before the next cycle begins, a phenomenon known as "valve float." Valve springs are designed to be strong enough to prevent this from happening, thus ensuring the engine operates efficiently across its full range of speeds.

3. Maintaining Sealing: By ensuring the valves close completely, the valve springs help maintain the sealing of the combustion chamber during combustion, maximizing the engine's power output.

Valve springs work in concert with other valve train components. As the camshaft rotates, it pushes on the valve (via a lifter and pushrod or directly in an overhead cam design) to open it. When the camshaft lobe rotates away, the spring force pushes the valve back to the closed position.

As for applications, valve springs are used in all types of internal combustion engines, including those found in cars, motorcycles, trucks, boats, airplanes, and various types of heavy machinery. Any engine that uses valves to control the intake and exhaust of air and fuel will have valve springs.


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